Vision Training and Reaction Training for Improving Performance and Reducing Injury Risk in Athletes Sports Vision Training

Main Article Content

Joseph Clark
Bret Betz
Leila Borders
Aaron Kuehn-Himmler
Kim Hasselfeld
Jon Divine


Visual processing, visual fields, and visual reaction times are essential to the performance of numerous sports and play a role in athletic injuries. Vision training, a process using visual exercises as part of a structured sports conditioning program, can be used to both enhance sports performance and prevent injury by improving neurovisual processing.


In this review, evidence and methods concerning vision training programs are presented with the results suggesting performance enhancement and/or injury prevention, primarily concussion. Multiple studies are reviewed and utilized as examples that vision training programs designed to improve athletic performance or prevent injury are effective.


We conclude from the collected evidence and theoretical considerations that vision training for numerous sports can be implemented with goals to improve performance and/or decrease injuries, specifically concussion.


Key Points: 1) In this opinion paper we believe that vision training improves neurovisual processing. The vision training improves certain brain functions. 2) That vision training programs as part of athlete conditioning can improve athletic performance. Eye hand coordination, reaction times and peripheral awareness improve on the field of play. Obviously this benefit can be sport specific with some sports benefiting more than others. 3)  There is emerging evidence that concussion rates can be decreased following pre-season vision training programs. The cause and effect needs to be better established and future research should address this opinion. 



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Article Details

Author Biographies

Joseph Clark, University of Cincinnati

Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine; College of Medicine

Bret Betz, University of Cincinnati

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Department of Emergency Medicine

Leila Borders, University of Cincinnati

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, and Department of Internal Medicine

Kim Hasselfeld, University of Cincinnati

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Jon Divine, University of Cincinnati

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery


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